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Funeral Prayers

Volume 4, Page 37a: Its Legal Status
There is a consensus among all the great Muslim jurists that a funeral prayer for a deceased person is a collective obligation or fard kifayah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, commanded the Muslims to offer it, and they have been doing so ever since they received this commandment.

Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was informed of the death of a person, he used to ask: Does he owe anything to anyone?' If the answer was in the affirmative, he would then ask: 'Has he (the deceased) left anything to settle his debt?' If he had left something to settle his debt, he would offer the funeral prayer for him. Otherwise, he would say to the Muslims: 'Offer a (funeral) prayer for your brother"' (Bukhari and Muslim).

Volume 4, Page 37b: Reward for Offering Funeral Prayer
Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Whoever follows a funeral procession and offers the prayer for the deceased, will get one kerat 68 of reward. And whoever follows it and remains with it until the body is buried, will get two kerats of reward, the least of which is equal in weight to 'Mount Uhud' or he said 'one of them is like Uhud.' The narrator is not certain as to the exact words used by the Prophet, peace be upon him. This is reported by the group.

Khabbab reported that he asked "O 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar! Did you hear what Abu Hurairah says? He says that he heard Allah's Messenger, saying. 'Whoever leaves his house to attend a funeral prayer, offers funeral prayer, and then follows the funeral procession until the body is buried will receive two kerats of reward, each of which is like the mountain of Uhud. And whoever offers the funeral prayer and then leaves for home (This proves that a person does not need permission of the family of the deceased to leave after attending the funeral) will get a reward like the mountain of Uhud" (Muslim). Ibn 'Umar sent Khabbab to 'Aishah asking her about the statement of Abu Hurairah. She said, "Abu Hurairah has told the truth." When Ibn ' Umar was informed about this he said, "We have indeed lost many a kerat."

Volume 4, Page 38: Requisite Conditions for Funeral Prayer
The prerequisites for a funeral prayer are the same as for the obligatory prayers. Anyone intending to offer funeral prayer must be in a state of purity, be free from all minor and major impurities, must cover his or her "awrah," and stand facing the direction of the Ka'bah.

Malik reported from Nafi' that Abdullah Ibn 'Umar used to say: "One should not offer a funeral prayer unless he is in a state of purity."

The funeral prayer differs from the prescribed prayers in that there is no fixed time for offering it. It may be offered at any time, including the times when regular prayers may not be offered. This is the opinion of the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools. Ahmad, Ibn Al-Mubarak, and Ishaq dislike offering a funeral prayer at sunrise, at noon when the sun is at its zenith, and at dusk when the sun is about to set, except in cases when it is feared that if delayed, the body might decompose.

Volume 4, Page 38a: Main Requirements of the Funeral Prayer
Certain requirements must be met for a valid funeral prayer, and failure to meet any of these may invalidate the prayer. These requirements are given below:

-1- Intention

The real intention is what is in the heart, and its verbal utterance is not legally required. Allah says in the Qur'an: "And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true in (faith)." Qur'an 98.5 And the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Verily, all deeds (of a person) will be judged in the light of the intentions behind them, and every person will attain what he intends."

-2- Standing Prayer

The majority of scholars regard it as an essential condition for a valid funeral prayer to stand while praying if one is physically able to do so. A funeral prayer offered while sitting or riding, without any valid excuse, is not valid.

It is reported in Al-Mughni "It is not permissible for one to offer a funeral prayer while riding, as in this case an essential condition - standing while praying - would be missing." This is the opinion of Abu Hanifah, Ash-Shafi'i, and Abu Thaur. There is no difference on this point. It is preferable to put one's hands together, placing the right on the left, as is done in the prescribed regular prayer. Some disagree, but in our view it is better and preferable.

-3- Loud Recitation of Four Takbirs

This is based on a report transmitted by both Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Jabir who said: "Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, offered funeral prayers for Najashi (Negus) and said four takbirs. (That is, he said Allahu akbar four times)

Tirmizhi said: Most of the learned Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) and others followed and acted in accordance with the above example of the Prophet. They hold that four takbirs should be said in a funeral prayer. Among these scholars are Sufyan, Malik, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq.

Volume 4, Page 39: Raising of One's Hands During the Takbirs
It is sunnah to raise one's hands while uttering the first takbir. There is nothing related from the Prophet, peace be upon him, to show that he raised his hands in funeral prayer except for the first takbir. Ash-Shawkani mentions various opinions about takbirs and the arguments for them and says: "In short nothing except the first takhir is reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him. The acts and sayings of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless them) by themselves do not constitute a conclusive argument. Therefore one should raise one's hands only on saying the first lakhir. For the rest of the (three) takbirs no such instruction is available, except when one changes from one posture to another as in the regular prayer. There is no such change of posture required in the funeral prayer, so there is no need for raising hands in other than the first "takbir".

Volume 4, Page 39a: Reciting "Al-Fatihah" and Salutations to the Prophet
(Abu Hanifah and Malik regard these as two essential requisites of funeral prayer)

Ash-Shafi'i has in his Musnad narrated from Abu Umamah ibn Sahl that one of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) told him that when offering a (funeral) prayer it is sunnah for the imam to say aloud Allahu Akbar (first opening takbir), then to recite al-Fatihah silently in his heart, and then send salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and then pray for forgiveness of the deceased. Nothing else is to be recited in between takbirs. Finally, he should end his prayer with salutations in his heart. (According to the majority of scholars, reciting al-fatihah, sending blessings upon the Prophet, supplicating for the deceased, and salutations are sunnah. In the case of the imam, however, it is sunnah to utter the takbir and salutations aloud in order to communicate with those praying with him) The author of Al-Fath says: "The chain of narrators of this hadith is sound."

Bukhari reported from Talha ibn Abdullah that he said: "I offered a funeral prayer that was led by Ibn Abbas. He recited Al-Fatihah and said: 'This is a sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him."' Tirmizhi also reported this and remarked that this has been the practice of some of the learned among the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them). Others prefer to recite Al-Fatihah after the first takbir. This is the opinion of Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq. Some others hold that Al-Fatihah is not to be recited in a funeral prayer. The funeral prayer should consist of praise for Allah (thana), blessings (salawat) upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a prayer (du'a) for forgiveness of the deceased. This is the opinion of Al-Thawri and other scholars of Kufah. Those who hold the recitation of al-Fatihah in a funeral prayer obligatory argue that the Prophet, peace be upon him, called it a prayer (salat) when he said: "Offer prayer (sallu) for your deceased friend." And as no prayer can be complete without al-Fatihah, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, also told us "no prayer is valid unless al-Fatihall is recited in it."

Volume 4, Page 40: Invoking Blessings Upon Allah's Prophet
Prayer for peace and blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, may be said in any form. If someone were to say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad," it should suffice. It is better, however, to use the prayers transmitted through tradition, like the following:: Extravagance in Shrouding is Disliked

(Allahumma Salli 'ala-Muhammad wa'ala ali Muhammad kama sallayta 'ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim wa barik 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala ali Muhammad kama barakta' ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim innaka hamidun Majid)." "O Allah! Grant peace to Muhammad and his family as you did to Ibrahim and his family. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and his family as you blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly You are Most Glorious and Most Praiseworthy.'

This should be said after the second takbir, as is obvious, though there is nothing specifically reported in this regard as to its precise place in the funeral prayer.

Volume 4, Page 40a: Supplication for the Deceased
This is a basic element of funeral prayer according to the consensus of juristic opinion. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "When you offer a funeral prayer for a deceased person, pray sincerely for him to Allah." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud, Al-Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban, who said it is a sound hadith.

For this purpose any supplication, even a brief one, may be used. It is recommended, however, to use one of the following supplications reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him:

-1- Abu Hurairah said: The Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed in one of the funeral prayers: Allahumma anta Rubbuha wa ant khalaqtaha wa anta razaqtaha wa ant hadaytaha lil lslam wa anta qabadata ruha-ha wa anta alamu bisirriha wa 'alaniyatiha. Ji'nashuf'ala-hafaghfir laha zanbaha "Oh Allah ! You are her Sustainer, You are her Creator, You provided her with sustenance, guided her to Islam, caused her to die, and You best know her secret and public life. We plead to You on her behalf to forgive her sins."

-2- Wa'ilah ibn al-Asqa reported: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, led us in a funeral prayer for a man from among the Muslims. I heard him saying: Allahumma inna fulana ibna fulan fi zhimatika wa habla jawaraka, fa-qihu min fitnatal qabri wa azhabin nar wa anta ahlal wafa' wal haq, allahumma faghfirlahu war-rahmhufa innaka antal ghafurur Raheem. 'O Allah! So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is under Your protection and mercy, so protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire. You are the guardian of the truthful and the faithful. OAllah! Forgive him and be merciful to him, as You are the Most Merciful, Most Forgiving'." Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud.

-3- ' Awf ibn Malik reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, while offering a funeral prayer, say: Allahumma-ghfir lahu war-rhamhu wa'fu anhu wa 'afahu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi' mudkhalahu waghsilhu bi-ma' ind wa thalj wa barad wa naqi minal khataya kama yunaqi athaubu danis minad danas wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi wa ahlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa qih fitnatal qabr wa azhaban nar. 'O Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, heal him, be generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water, and purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on earth) and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife, and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire'." This is narrated by Muslim.

-4- It is reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer and said: Allahummaghfir lihayatina wa mayatina wa saghirina wa kahirina wa zhakirina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyatahu minna fa-ahyahu 'alal Islam wa man tawafthu minna fa-tawafthu 'ala iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la tudalana ba'dahu. "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, our young, our old, our males and our females, those of us who are present, and those who are absent. O Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to live in Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in faith. O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him, and cause us not to go astray after him." This is narrated by Ahmad and the other Sunan books. (Authentic canonical collections of hadith)

If the deceased is a child, then it is desirable to pray: Allahumma 'ij'alhu lana salafan wa zhukhran. "O Allah! Make him our forerunner and make him (a means of) reward for us and a treasure." Bukhari and Al-Baihaqi report it from Al-Hasan. Nawawi said: "If the deceased is a child, a boy or a girl, one should say what is reported in the hadith, namely, "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, . . . ," and add the words: Allahumma 'ij'alhu faratan li-abwaihi wa salafan wa zhukhran wa izatan wa i'tibaran wa shafi'an wa thaqil bihi mawazlnahumma wa afrlghas sabra 'ala qulubihima wa la taftinhumma ba'dahu wa la tuharim-humma ajrahu. "O Allah, make him (or her) for hisparents a forerunner, a treasure and an admonition, an honor, an intercessor, and cause him (or her) to make their scales of good deeds heavier (on the Day of Judgement). O Allah! Grant them patience, and O Allah! Do not put them to trial after him (or her) nor deprive them of his (or her) reward."

Volume 4, Page 43: Timing of Supplications
Ash-Shawkani said: There are no fixed times for these prayers. One may use any of these after all the takbirs, or after the first or second or third takbir, or divide it between each two takbirs, or say any of these prayers in between each two takbirs in the light of the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It is also said that supplications should be done in the words given in the above reported hadith for both male or female dead persons.

Volume 4, Page 43a: Supplications after the fourth takbir
It is preferred to supplicate for the deceased after the fourth takbir, even though the supplicant rnay have done so after the third takbir. This is based on a narration by Ahmad on the authority of ' Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa who said that when his daughter died, at his funeral prayer for her he made four takbirs. After the fourth takbir, he stood supplicating for as much as he did in between the other takbirs. Then he said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to do the same in a funeral prayer."

Ash-Shafi'i said: "After the fourth takbir one may say, Allahumma la tuharimna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba'dahu. 'O Allah! Do not deprive us of reward for (supplicating for) him/her, nor put us to trial after him (or her)'."

Ibn Abu Hurairah said: "After the fourth takbir the elders used to say: Allahumma Rabbana atina fi ad-Dunya hasanatan wafi al-Akhirati hasanatan wa qina 'azhab an-Nar. 'O Allah! Grant us good in this life and good in the life to come, and save us from the torment of Hell Fire."

Volume 4, Page 43b: Salutations
All jurists with the exception of Abu Hanifah are in agreement that the two salutations (saying assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah), one to the right and the other to the left, are obligatory. Abu Hanifah, however is of the view that they are required, but not obligatory as a condition. Those who hold it to be obligatory argue that the funeral prayer is a prayer (salah), and as such it cannot be terminated except by salutations (to the right and left).

Ibn Mas'ud said: "Salutations at the end of a funeral prayer are similar to those said at the end of any formal prayer. The minimum that would suffice in this respect is to say: "As-Salamu 'Alaikum" or "salamun 'alaikum" (the peace be with you or peace be with you)."

Ahmad is of the opinion that one salutation - the salutation to the right - is sunnah, and there is no harm if one says it while looking straight ahead. This is based on the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his Companions who ended their funeral prayer with one salutation. No difference of opinion among them is on record on this issue.

Ash-Shafi'i holds that two salutations, turning one's face first to the right and then to the left, are commendable. Ibn Hazm said: "The second salutation is remembrance of Allah, and an act of virtue."

Volume 4, Page 44: Summary for Funeral Prayer
-1- Make sure that you meet all the requirements for a formal prayer (salah);

-2- Stand up with the intention of supplicating for the deceased;

-3- Raise both hands with a takbir (takbirat al ihram);

-4- Fold your right hand over your left hand;

-5- Commence the funeral prayer with the (silent) recitation of Al-Fatihah.

-6- After Al-Fatihah say another takbir,

-7- Offer salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and end with a takbir.

-8- Now supplicate for the deceased, and end with a takbir.

-9- Make a general supplication.

-10- End the prayer with salutations (to the right and to the left side).

Volume 4, Page 44a: Imam's Position in Funeral Prayer for a Male or a Female
It is sunnah for the imam to stand opposite the head of a male body, and opposite the middle of a female body. This is based on a hadith reported from Anas that he offered a funeral prayer for a male standing opposite his head. As soon as the body of the man was removed, a female body was brought in for funeral prayer. He led the prayer standing opposite the middle of her body. Thereupon he was asked, "Did the Prophet, peace be upon him, stand where you stood in the cases of a man and a woman?" He answered: "Yes." This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi, who regards it as a sound hadith. Al-Tahawi said: This is the most preferred position, because it is supported by other reports from Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him.

Volume 4, Page 44b: Funeral Prayer for a Number of Dead Persons
If there are a number of bodies, including both male and female, they should be placed in separate rows, between the imam and the direction of the Ka'abah, with the best among them nearer to the imam, and a single funeral prayer may be offered for all of them.

If the deceased include both male and female, a separate prayer for each may be offered. But it is also permissible to offer one prayer for all of them at once. In such a case the male should be placed immediately before the Imam and then the female in the direction of the Qiblah.

It is reported by Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar that he offered a funeral prayer for nine of the deceased, males and females. He placed the males closest to the imam and then the females in the direction of the Qiblah. He placed all of them in one row. The funeral of Umm Kulthum, daughter of 'Ali and the wife of 'Umar, and her son called Zaid, was led by Sa'id ibn al-'As, and among the people attending this funeral were Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah. The little boy was placed before the imam. A man said: "I do not like this arrangement, and looked towards Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah, and said to them: "What is this?" They replied: "This is the sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him,. This was narrated by Nasa'i and Al-Baihaqi, and Al-Hafiz says its chain of authorities is sound.

Another hadith says that if a funeral prayer is offered for a child together with a woman, the boy should be placed nearer the imam and the woman next to it in the direction of the Qiblah. And if there are men, women and children, then the children should be placed next to the men.

Volume 4, Page 45: Three Rows for a Funeral Prayer are Commended
It is recommended that the people should make three rows ( The minimum number of people for a row is two persons) while offering a funeral prayer, and that these rows should be straight. This is based on a report from Malik ibn Habairah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: 'Every believer who dies is forgiven by Allah if a group of Muslims comprising three rows prays for him'." That is why, if there were not many people attending a funeral prayer, Malik ibn Habayrah would make them stand in three rows. This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah, Tirmizhi, and Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith.

Ahmad said: "If the number of people present at the funeral prayer is very small I would still prefer that they make three rows." He was asked: "What if there are only four people present?" He replied: "They may make two rows, with two persons in each line." He did not like three rows with each of them consisting of only one person.

Volume 4, Page 45a: A Larger Number is Much Preferred
A larger gathering of people for the funeral prayer is preferable, as is reported by 'Aishah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'If a Muslim dies and his funeral prayer is attended by a group of a hundred Muslims, and they all sincerely pray for his forgiveness, he is forgiven'." This is narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Tirmizhi.

Ibn 'Abbas reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying: 'If a Muslim dies and a group of forty people, who do not associate any one with Allah, pray for him, their prayer is accepted and he is forgiven' ." This has been narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud.

Volume 4, Page 46: Arriving Late for Funeral Prayer
A person who misses a part of a funeral prayer should make up the missed takbirs--making them consecutively. This is preferable, but if he cannot do it there is no harm. Ibn 'Umar, Al-Hasan, Ayyub Al-Sukhtiani, and Al-Awza'i are of the opinion that such a person is not required to repeat the missed takbirs, and he should finish his prayer with the salutations led by the imam.

Ahmad said: "If he cannot make the missed takbirs, there is no harm." The author of Al-Mughni prefers this opinion and remarks: "It is supported by a saying of Ibn ' Umar and there is nothing on record from the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) to contradict it. It is reported by 'Aishah that she said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, "O Allah's Messenger, sometimes when I offer a funeral prayer, I cannot hear some of the takbirs by the imam?" He replied: "Say the takbir that you hear and do not worry about the ones that you miss. You do not have to repeat these later on." This statement is quite explicit. These are consecutive--uninterrupted--takbirs and, if missed, they need not be repeated like the ones in the 'Eid prayer.

Volume 4, Page 46a: Persons for Whom Funeral Prayer is to be Offered
There is a consensus among the jurists that funeral prayer is offered for all Muslims, male or female, and young or old. Ibn Al-Munzhir said: "The scholars are in agreement that if it is established that an infant is born alive, that is, by his crying, sneezing, or moving etc., then, if it dies, a funeral prayer should be offered for it."

Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "One may ride one's mount behind the funeral, and walk on foot a little ahead of it or to its right or left. A funeral prayer should be offered for an aborted baby, seeking for his parents the mercy and forgiveness of Allah." This is reported by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud. Another narration reads: "A person on foot may walk behind a funeral, or ahead of it, or on its left side or right side or still nearer to it." According to another report, "A rider should ride behind the funeral, whereas one on foot may walk anywhere. And a funeral prayer should be offered for a child." This is reported by Ahmad, Nasa'i, and Tirmizhi, who consider it a sound hadith.

Volume 4, Page 46b: Funeral Prayer for an Aborted Child
A miscarried fetus, less than four months old, may not be washed, nor may a funeral prayer be offered for it. It should be wrapped in a piece of cloth and buried. The majority of jurists are in agreement on this point.

On the other hand, if a miscarried fetus is four months old or older, and the existence of life in it is established, then there is a consensus that it should be washed and a funeral prayer offered for it. But if its life is not established by its movements or other evidence, then according to Malik, Al-Awza'i, AlHasan, and the Hanafi school, funeral prayer may not be offered for it. They base their opinion on a hadith transmitted by Tirmizhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Al-Baihaqi on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "If in a miscarried fetus life is established by its movements, a funeral prayer should be offered for it, and it is entitled to its share of inheritance." According to this hadith offering a funeral prayer for a miscarried fetus is conditioned upon proof of its life evident in signs of life, such as its movement, etc.

Ahmad, Sa' id, Ibn Sirin, and Ishaq are of the opinion that in the light of the above hadith, a miscarried fetus may be washed and a funeral prayer may be offered for it. The words used in this hadith are "a funeral prayer should be offered for a miscarried fetus" because it has a soul and is alive. The Prophet, peace be upon him, informed us that a fetus receives a soul when it is four months old. Others refute this argument with the assertion that there is confusion in the chain of narrators of this hadith, and besides, a stronger hadith contradicts it. But this alone does not constitute a valid argument.

Volume 4, Page 47: Funeral Prayer for a Martyr
A martyr is one who is killed in a battlefield fighting the enemies of Islam. All the hadith on this subject are quite explicit that no funeral prayer may be offered for a martyr.

Bukhari has narrated from Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered that the martyrs of the battle of Uhud be buried while they were still bleeding. He neither washed them nor offered a funeral prayer for them.

Ahmad, Ahu Daw 'ud and Tirmizhi reported that Anas said: "The martyrs of Uhud were not washed. They were buried with their wounds unwashed, and no funeral prayer was offered for them."

There are, however, some hadith that are equally explicit and state that a funeral prayer should be offered for martyrs. Bukhari reported from 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir that one day the Prophet, peace be upon him, went out and offered a funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud, eight years after their death, as if he were bidding farewell to both the living and the dead.

Abu Malik Al-Ghafari reported: "The bodies of the martyrs of Uhud were brought in batches of nine and placed with the body of Hamzah, who served as the tenth. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them. After that the nine bodies were removed leaving Hamzah undisturbed. Then a batch of another nine martyrs was brought and placed beside Hamzah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them as well. This way the Prophet offered funeral prayer for all of them. This hadith has been narrated by Al-Baihaqi, who says: "This is the most sound hadith on this subject. It is, however, a mursal hadith. (Mursal: A hadith that rests on a chain of authonties going no further back than the second generation after the Prophet (peace be upon him))

The difference in the narrations in these various hadith has led jurists to differ on this matter. Some take all of them together, while others prefer some narrations over others. Ibn Hazm holds that either--offering or not offering (funeral prayer for the martyrs)--is permissible. It is alright whether or not a funeral prayer is offered for the martyrs. In one of his statements Ahmad has also expressed a similar view. Ibn al-Qayyim approves of this view and says: "The correct position in this regard is that one is given a choice whether or not to offer a funeral prayer (for a martyr), because there are reports in favor of both positions." This is the opinion also of Ahmad, and he is the proper person to describe the principles of his school. He says: "What is apparent from this is that no funeral prayer was offered for the martyrs of Uhud before burying them. There were seventy people who fell martyrs in that battle, and any funeral prayer for them could not have taken place in secret."

The hadith reported by Jabir ibn 'Abd Allah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for these martyrs is sound and very explicit. Jabir' s father was among those who were killed that day, and he knew what few besides him knew.

Abu Hanifah, Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan, and Ibn Al-Musayiyaib, however, are inclined to the reports stating that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did offer funeral prayer for the martyrs. They hold that a funeral prayer must be offered for martyrs. However, Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, Ishaq, and, according to one report, Ahmad, prefer the reports that say no funeral prayer is to be offered for martyrs. Ash-Shafi'i in his Kitab al-Umm writes: "All reports received concerning this subject are sound and show that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud. Those who report that he offered funeral prayer for them and said seventy takbirs for Hamzah are not correct. Those who turn away from these sound hadith should be ashamed of themselves. The hadith reported by 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir also states that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did so eight years after their death, as if he were bidding them farewell. This does not constitute abrogation of an established practice. (See Al-Umm. by Ash-Shafi'i)

Volume 4, Page 48: A Person Surviving a Battle but later Dying of Wounds
If one is wounded in a battle, but survives, remains in a stable condition for a while, and then dies, he should be washed, and a funeral prayer should be offered for him, even though he may be a martyr. The Prophet, peace be upon him, washed Sa'd ibn Mu'azh, and offered a funeral prayer for him, after he died of his hand wounds. Sa'd was taken to the mosque, where he remained for a few days, and then he died as a martyr because of his infected wound.

If on the other hand, a wounded fighter does not survive in a stable condition, or he just talked or drank water and thereafter died, he is not to be washed or offered a funeral prayer.

The author of Al-Mughni states: "It is recorded in Futuh Al-Sham, that a man said: "I took some water to give a drink to my cousin if he were still alive after some injuries in the battle. On the way, I passed by Al-Harith ibn Hisham, who was also wounded in the same battle. I wanted to give him a drink, but he noticed that another wounded man was looking toward him for a drink. At this he pointed that I should first give this man a drink. I went toward him to give him a drink, but he also found another man looking to him. So he gestured that I should first give him the drink. Thus they all died. None of them was washed or offered a funeral prayer although they all died after the battle.





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